Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants

Sinhala / Local name Botanical / Latin name Compositions Uses
Ankenda Acronychia pedunculata The leaves of this tree contained an aromatic oil. The bark is used for externally on swellings, fractures, sores and ulcers and taken internally as a purgative
Beli Aegle marmelos The leaves of this tree contain the alkaloids, aegelenine, aegelin, skimmianine. The wood contains dictamine and the bark-fagarine. The fruit pulp is marmelosin. The fresh leaves on distillation yield a faint yellowish green volatile oil with a peculiar aromatic odour and slightly bitter taste. The dried pulp of the unripe fruit given along with other ingredients for dysentery, piles, dyspepsia, jaundice, scrofula, indigestion and chronic fever. The root/ bark is used in the form of a decoction for intermittent fever, hypochondria, melancholia and palpitation of the heart. It checks diarrhoea and gastric troubles in children. The fresh juice of the leaves is given for jaundice and anasarca. The ripe fruit is a laxative and prevents the growth of piles.
Bakmi Nauclea orientalis The leaves and barks of this tree contain alkaloids The leaves are applied on boils and tumours. The bark is anti- pyretic, vulnerary and anti-diarrheic. It is a cure for toothache
Bangwel-geta Coscinium fenestratum The stem and root of this climber contain the alkaloids, berberin, jatrorrhizine and palmatine. The wood is a bitter tonic and a decoction of it is used as a remedy for, or to prevent, tetanus. the root has antiseptic properties
Bukinda /Walkinda Tinospora malabarica The leaves and stem contain tonic properties. The leaves and stems are used in the treatment of chronic rheumatism and whole plant is used as fumigant for piles and ulcerated wounds. Medicated baths prepared with it are given to patients suffering from liver complaints.
Bu- kobbe Allophylus cobbe The seed of this plant contains an unidentified alkaloid This plant is an emenagogue. The astringent root is employed to check diarrhoea. All parts of the plant are used for preparation of medicinal oils for use on fractures.
 Dodan –kaha  Memecylon capitellatum  The leaves and bark contain aromatic oil.  The leaves and barks of this plant are used for the preparation of medicinal oils applied on ulcers and as a fomentation on swellings.
 Diyamitta  Cissampelos pareira  The roots of the plant contain the alkaloids bebeerines, cissampeline, hyatine, hyatinine, isochondodedrine and sepeerine; quercitol, an acidic volatile oil, sterol, a yellow bitter principle and resin.  The leaves are used as an antiscabious remedy and in the treatment of abscesses, ulcers and wounds. a decoction of the roots is a febrifuge, diuretic, lithotriptic and a pectoral remedy. It is a good emetic and purgative. It is also used in the treatment of chronic cystitis, nephritic colic, nephritis, vesicular calculus, fever, diarrhoea and urinary and venereal diseases. it is an antiseptic for the bladder and used for chronic inflammation of the urinary passage. the root is also sued as a fish poison.
 Embul dodan  Citrus aurantium  The oil distilled from the flowers of this tree contains limonene, geraniol and methyl anthranilate. The rind of the fruit yields a volutile oil, a gum –resin fixed oil and limonene and three glucosides hesperidin, isohesperidin, urantiamarin pentamenthoxy flovone, auranetin and tannin. The juice of the fruit contains mucilage, sugar, citric acid and inorganic salts, while the leaf has ascorbic acid and stachydrine.  The mature fruit is used with pepper and rock salt as a throat swab on inflamed glands and tonsils to draw out phlegm. The juice mixed with suger of borassus flabellifer and sugarcane juice is given is given for chronic cough.
Gas nidikumba Biophytun reinward The leaves are contain alkaloids The leaves of this herb are diuretic and expectorant. The ground leaves are applied to wounds and bruises. A decoction of the herb is given for hypertension. A decoction of the leaves is given for asthma, phthisis and snake bite Poisoning, while a decoction of the root is drunk for gonorrhoea and stone in the bladder. The powdered seed mixed with cow ghee is applied on abscesses to promote suppuration.
Hintambala Carmona microphylla The bark of this plant contains a glucoside The root of this plant is used for cachexia and syphilis and as an antidote for vegetable poisons. a decoction of the leaves is used to cure diarrhoea accompanied with discharge of blood and also for cough.
Goraka Garcinia cambogia The fruit contains the alkaloids The dried rind of the fruit of this tree is astringent, antiseptic and is useful in decoction for washing ulcers and as a gargle in weak and spongy gums. Internally, it acts as a stomachic and is used in anorexia and chronic dyspepsia. The dried rind is of the employed for flovouring curries.
Karapincha pages/murraya-koenigii The fruit of this plant yields oil and the leaves contain a glucoside called Koenigin. The leaves bark and roots are tonic stomachache. The leaves with other ingredients are roasted, made into a powder and given for constipation, abdominal colic and diarrhea. The boiled leaves are given for hiccough and hoarseness. The juice of the fresh leaves is also given for diarrhoea and dysentery. The bruised leaves are applied externally on eruptions. The leaf of this plant is the familiar “Curry – leaf” used for flavouring soaps, vegetables and meat dishes.
Keppetiya Croton laccifer A continuous waxy incrustation formed by the secretions of certain spices of scale insects (Tachardia lacca) living on the tender branches of the shrub. Sucking juice from them forms the lack of commerce much used for lacquer work in Sri Lanka. It is used medicinally in the preparation of medicinal oils and pills used in the treatment of fever, colds, dysentery and lung diseases. The root is used for preparation of pills given for chronic fevers. The juice of the bark and leaves is used as a styptic and on skin disease. The leaves are used for paddy fields and betel vines as they are supposed to control certain soil borne pests and disease
Kohomba Azadirachta indica The leaf of this tree contains the alkaloid paraisine, the bark margosine and the fruit azaridine. The oil extracted from the seed contains margosic acid and a bitter principle. A strong decoction of the fresh leaves has antiseptic properties and is used for washing hounds ulcers and as a bath for patients recovering from chickenpox and childbirth. It is a useful insecticide as well. The gummy exudation from the trunk is useful in chronic cases of leprosy and other skin diseases. Useful oil is extracted from the seed. It is a local remedy for chronic skin diseases and ulcers preventing the formation of maggots and dislodging them if they are already present. It is used externally for rheumatism and taken internally by pregnant women and patients suffering from syphilis, leprosy and chronic malarial fevers. A decoction of the root bark along with other ingredients is given for typhoid fever. Juice of the fresh leaves is given with rock salt for intestinal worms and with honey for jaundice and skin disease. The oil is given with garlic and ginger after childbirth.
Kotikan-bevila Sida alba The entire plant contains alkaloids The leaves are beneficial in case of gonorrhea, gleet and scalding urine, while a decoction of the root is used as a demulcent for irritability of the bladder and for gonorrhea. the root also acts as a diaphoretic
Kudumiris (Forest paper) Toddlia asiatica The leaves of this plant yield a volatile oil with citronellal and linalool while the roots / bark contains the alkaloids toddaline, toddalinine ; lactone resin, fixed oil and a glucoside, diosmin. The stem / bark yeild three coumarins aculeatin and aculeatin hidiate The root bark is reputed as an anti malarial remedy; through clinical tests with alcoholic extracts have not shown positive results. An infusion of it is a stimulating tonic, particularly after malaria. A poultice of the leaf is applied to caries teeth for relief from toothache. The root is also used for malaria, intermittent fever, diarrhoea, cholera, rheumatism and syphilis.
Kurundu Cinnamomum zeylanicum The chief constituent of cinnamon is the essential oil which consists of cinnamic aldehyde with variable proportions of hydrocarbons. The bark contains besides the oil, sugar, mannite, , starch, mucilage and tannic acid. The oil is useful in the perfume and flavouring industries. The oil from the roots contains camphor, eucalyptol and safrol. The seeds contain fat. The bark of this tree is used for dyspepsia, flatulence, diarrhoea, dysentery, vomiting, bronchitis, gangrene of the lungs and phthisis. The oil is a rubefacient and is a useful application for acute and chronic rheumatism. Cinnamon is also given for cramps of the stomach, toothache and used in massive doses in the treatment of cancer.
Kos Artocarpus heterophyllus The fruit of the tree contains a high carbohydrate content but is deficient in calcium and iron. The seeds are rich in starch. The wood contains morin and a crystalline compound, cyanomaclurin which has been found tonic contain the phloroglucinol group probably isomeric with catechins and piperonal, an essential oil. The pulp of the fruit is rich in vitamin C The fruit is eaten in various forms. The rich yellow flesh (aril) surrounding the seeds is sweet and aromatic when ripe and eaten raw. Before the arils ripen, they are boiled with the seeds and eaten with scraped coconut as a meal. The seeds are roasted and made into sweet meats. The latex makes an excellent cement for cracked pots especially those use for carrying water. The young fruits are curried or prepared into pickles. The leaves are used in skin an antiasthmatic. The milky juice mixed with vinegar is applied on swellings and abscesses. The starch from the seeds is given in bilious colic and the roasted seeds have an aphrodisiacal action. The heartwood is an excellent timber and a dye extracted from it is used for dyeing robes of Buddhist priests. An infusion of the mature leaves and bark is given for stones in the bladder and for diabetes.
Mahakaramba Carissa carandas The bark contains an alkaloid. The roots contain traces of a volatile oil, salicylic acid and an alkaloid The leaves are used for diarrhoea, earache, soreness of the mouth and throat and syphilitic pains. a decoction of the leaves is often used at the commencement of remittent fevers. the root has a reputation of being a bitter stomachic and used as a remedy for itch along with other ingredients. the ripe fruit possesses antiscorbutic properties
Muna mal Mimusops elengi The bark and flowers of this tree contain an alkaloid, while the barks has in addition a tannin and a saponin. the seeds contain a toxic principle and a saponin, mimusops -saponin. The leaves do not contain saponin. A decoction of the bark of this tree is used as a gargle for disease of the gums and teeth and taken internally for discharges of the mucous membranes of the bladder and urethra. It is useful for treating fever and is supposed to increase fertility in women. A long with the flowers. It is given in diarrhoea. The young fruit in decoction is used as gargle for treating sprue and is chewed for strengthening gums. The pulp of the ripe fruit cures chronic treating sprue and is chewed for strengthening gums. The pulp of the ripe fruit cures chronic dysentery.
Nelli Phyltanthus emblica The fruit/bark/leaves/seed used very often and the fruit contains juice which is rich in vitamin C. The pericarp of the fruit is often used in decoctions along with other ingredients and externally on boils with cow ghee to promote suppuration. The root, bark and fruit are astringent. The unripe fruit is cooling, laxative and diuretic. Exudation from incisions on the fruit is applied externally on inflammation of the eye. The juice of the bark with honey and turmeric is given for gonorrhoea. An infusion of the leaves with fenugreek seed is given for chronic diarrhoea. The fruit is rich in vitamin C. A decoction of the fruit with stems of Tinospora cordifolia is a well known remedy for various urinary diseases. The expressed juice of the fruit along with other ingredients is used to cure haemorrhage , anaemia, colic, acute leprosy, fits, insanity, jaundice, cough, hiccough, indigestion, tyspepsia, asthma and other diseases.
Puwak Areca catechu The seed of this palm contains the alkaloids arecaidine, arecaine arecolidine, arecoline, guvacine and isoguvacine. The leaves and stems also contain an alkaloid, while the entire plant has norarecaidine. Beside these, the nut contains tannin, gum and gullic acid. The dried nut is stimulant, astringent and taenifuge. It is a powerful sialogogue and stimulates the secretion of sweet. It is sued as a masticatory , dentifrice and vermifuge. The powdered nut is effective in expelling tape worms from human beings and also combating roundworms. Further, the grated nut is applied externally on ulcers while the dried unripe nuts along with other ingredients are taken to destroy abdominal worms. The fruit with opium for diarrhoea and the root for diseases of the liver.
Rath mal Ixora coccinea The root of this shrub contains aromatic oil, acrid oil, tannin, fatty acids and a white crystalline substance. The flowers contain colouring matter, an astringent principle, wax and a yellow colouring matter related to quercitrim. A decoction of the roots is given for dysentery and as a sedative for hiccoughs, nausea, loss of appetite, fever and gonorrhoea. The flowers and bark are used on reddened eyes and eruption in children. A decoction of the flowers is given for haemoptysis, catarrhal bronchitis and dysmenorrhoea
Eepatta / Ruk - anguna Alangium salviifolium Contains the alkaloid akharkantine, the seed alamarckine, root / bark alanginine, alangiums A and B and ankoline, and the bark lama rkine and bases. The leaves are used as a poultice to relieve rheumatic pains while the root bark is used in piles and as an anthelmintic and purgative. the stem bark is bitter and is used for the treatment of skin diseases and pyrexia. it is a suitable substitute for Ipecacuanha. Both bark and root are used as an antidote for cobra bite poisoning.
Sapu Michelia champaca The leaves, stems, fruits and seeds of this tree contain an unnamed alkaloid. Bark contains a volatile oil, fixed oil resin, tannin, mucilage, starch and sugar. The volatile brown oil from the bark contains cineol, isoeugenol, benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol, benzolaidehyde and pcresolmethy ether. The flowers, seeds and bark contain a bitter aromatic principle. The leaves are applied to indilent swellings and the leaf juice is taken to relieve colic. The bark is used in the treatment of low intermittent fevers. The root bark is an emmenagogue and purgative. The flowers are a stimulant, carminative, demulcent and diuretic. An infusion of the flower is recommended for dyspepsia and fevers. The mascerated flowers are excellent for cephalalgia, ophthalmic, rheumatism, vertigo and gout. The oil from the seeds relieves flatulence when rubbed on the abdomen. The flower yields Champaka oil which is used as a perfume.
Siyambala Tamarindus indica The pulp of the fruit contains citric, tartaric, oxalic, malic and succinic acids, bitartrate of potash, suger and pectin while the seeds contain albuminoids, fats, tannin carbohydrates, and much mucilaginous material tannin. The leaves ground into a paste with lime juice and heatwood of Acacia chundra wild are applied on boils to prevent suppuration and inflammatory swellings. A decoction of the leaves is used as a formentation on boils and abscesses. The testa of the seed mascerated with vinegar or lime juice is applied on the face to prevent formation of pimples. Internally, the leaves and pulp act as cholagogue laxatives and are often used in congestion and hemorrhoids. The ripe fruit is regarded as a refrigerant digestive, carminative and laxative. The powdered seed is given internally as a remedy for jaundice. It is externally applied on eye disease and ulcers. The pulp of ripe fruit is largely used as an ingredient in curries and chutneys. The heartwood is very durable and used in furniture- making as it takes on a good polish.
Walangasal / Wal-embilla Embelia ribes The plant contains embelin The fruit is a carminative, stomachic and beneficial against intestinal worms, dyspepsia and skin diseases. It is especially effective against tapeworms. The dried berries are used along with other ingredients for treatment of tumours, calculi, fistula, piles, cough, enlarged spleen, abdominal dropsy and preventing effects of old age. A decoction of the roasted fruit is a household remedy for worms and gripe in children, while the powdered fruit with bees’ honey is given to prevent worm trouble
Wal -Karapincha Micromelum ceylanicum The name and stems of this tree contain an unnamed alkaloid This plant is used as a substitute for Murraya koenigii Spreng., medicinally. it is recommended for phthisis and chest troubles. The root is chewed with betel leaves for coughs. The boiled roots are applied as a poultice for ague.
Welangiriya Paramignya monophylla The root of this plant contains calcium oxalate. The root is used as an alternative tonic. the bruised leaves are applied externally on snake –bite wounds. this plant is fed to cattle suffering from haematuria or flux of blood from the abdomen.