Turmeric (binomial name: Circuma longa), once processed from the rhizomes, is a deep orangish yellow powder. It is used mainly to impart colour or in other words dye foods. When it comes to flavour, the spice tastes slightly bitter and peppery with undertones of earthy flavour.
Pepper generally refers to black, white and green pepper. Black pepper is the unripe fruit of the pepper plant, piper nigrum, cooked and dried. Green pepper refers to the dried, but uncooked, unripe fruit of the pepper plant. White pepper, on the other hand, is the seeds from ripe pepper fruits.
Cinnamon refers to Cinnamomum Verum or ‘true cinnamon,’which is a plant endemic to Sri Lanka. Most other cinnamon (from other countries) is from related species of plants and is called ‘cassia’. It is a spice obtained by making shavings (also known as quills) of the inner bark of the cinnamon plant.