Typically, sugar is created from tropical sugarcane plants. They are crushed and their juice is extracted. It is then heated in a process that yields molasses. The molasses contains very dark sugar crystals. Manufacturers spin that in a centrifuge to remove the molasses and produce white sugar.
White sugar comes in a number of different granule sizes, but most recipes call for granulated white sugar which features medium-sized granules. Sometimes it is called table sugar. When granulated white sugar is heated it browns to a toffee-like color and takes on a similar flavor.
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