asafoetida, also spelled asafetida, also called hing spice, gum resin prized as a spice in India and Iran, where it is used to flavour curries, meatballs, and pickles. Acrid in taste, it emits a strong onionlike odour because of its organic sulfur compounds. It is commonly sold in powdered form and is said to enhance umami flavours in savory foods. It is also used in traditional medicine, often as a digestive aid or for menstrual problems.
Asafoetida is obtained chiefly from the plant Ferula assa-foetida of the carrot family Apiaceae. The whole plant is used as a fresh vegetable, the inner portion of the full-grown stem being regarded as a delicacy. The plant may grow as high as 2 metres (7 feet). After four years, when it is ready to yield asafoetida, the stems are cut down close to the root, and a milky juice flows out that quickly sets into a solid resinous mass. A freshly exposed surface of asafoetida has a translucent pearly white appearance, but it soon darkens in the air, becoming first pink and finally reddish brown.